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Philosophical Schools and Systems: History of Schools of Thought

Philosophy is not a monolithic field. In addition to being divided into different branches of inquiry, each branch has it’s own schools of thought and systems. These schools or systems are coherent ideologies or trends which inform how people answer the questions asked in philosophy. Disagreements in philosophy often revolve around differences between philosophical schools of thought; thus understanding what various schools teach is important in understanding philosophical debates.
  1. Nihilism & Nihilists (11)
  2. Existentialism (68)
  3. Objectivism & Objectivists (19)

What is Existentialism? History of Existentialism, Existentialist Philosophy,...
Existentialism is more a trend or tendency that can be found throughout the history of philosophy. Existentialism is hostile towards abstract theories or systems that propose to describe all of the intricacies and difficulties of human life through more-or-less simplistic formulas. Existentialists focus primarily on matters such as choice,...

What is Humanism? History of Humanism, Humanist Philosophy, Philosophers
Humanism involves any concern with humans (including human needs, human desires, and human experiences) first and foremost. This often means giving human beings a special place in the universe on account of their abilities and faculties. Humanism is less a philosophical system, a set of doctrines, or even a specific system of beliefs, than it is...

What is Idealism? History of Idealism, Idealist Philosophy, Idealist...
Idealism is a category of philosophical systems which argue that reality is somehow dependent upon the mind rather than independent of the mind. The most extreme versions of Idealism deny that a 'world' even exists outside of our minds. Narrower versions of Idealism argue that our understanding of reality reflects the workings of our mind first...

What is Logical Positivism? History and Profile of Logical Positivism,...
Developed by the 'Vienna Circle' during the 1920s and 30s, Logical Positivism was an attempt to systematize empiricism in light of developments in math and philosophy. The term Logical Positivism was first used by Albert Blumberg and Herbert Feigl in 1931. For logical positivists, the entire discipline of philosophy was centered one task: to...

What is Materialism? History of Materialism, Materialist Philosophy
Materialism is the idea that everything is either made only of matter or is ultimately dependent upon matter for its existence and nature. It is possible for a philosophy to be materialistic and still accord spirit a (secondary or dependent) place, but most forms of materialism tend to reject the existence of spirit or anything non-physical.

What is Nihilism? History and Profile of Nihilism, Nihilist Philosophy, and...
The term nihilism comes from the Latin word 'nihil' which literally means 'nothing.' Many believe that it was originally coined by Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev in his novel Fathers and Sons (1862) , but it probably first appeared several decades earlier. Nevertheless, Turgenev's use of the word to describe the views he attributed to young...

What is Pragmatism? History of Pragmatism, Pragmatic Philosophy
Pragmatism is an American philosophy from the early 20th century. According to Pragmatism, the truth or meaning of an idea or a proposition lies in its observable practical consequences rather than anything metaphysical. It can be summarized by the phrase 'whatever works, is likely true.' Because reality changes, 'whatever works' will also...

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