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Philosophy & Philosophers: Philosophy, Logic, History of Reason

It isn't easy to say what exactly philosophy is, how to study it, or how to 'do' it. So why has it long been one of the central subjects in Western academics? It is difficult to categorize philosophy because philosophizing makes up so much of what we do in life - there is no escaping it for anyone who want to think clearly or think about important subjects.
  1. Famous Philosophers (4)
  2. Branches of Philosophy (114)
  3. Philosophy Schools, Systems (108)
  4. Logic & Critical Thinking (54)
  5. Books on Philosophy
  6. Logical Fallacies (43)
  7. Harry Potter (13)
  8. Weekly Quotes (74)
  9. Reviews: Social Sciences

Objective vs. Subjective in Philosophy, Religion
Distinctions between objectivity and subjectivity lie at the heart of debates and conflicts in philosophy, morality, journalism, science, and more. Very often objective is treated as a vital goal while subjective is used as a criticism. Objective judgements are good; subjective judgments are arbitrary. Objective standards are good;...

Why Should Atheists Learn Philosophy? How Can Atheists Learn From Philosophy?
Each branch of philosophy has some relevance to atheism, atheists, and the critiques which irreligious atheists use to challenge religion, religious beliefs, and theism. Some branches are more relevant than others and some are more relevant than most people realize, but all have something to offer. Although no one can be an expert in them all,...

Philosophy Basics: Overview of Resources on Philosophy, Philosophical History
What is philosophy? What have philosophers done to advance our understanding of the human condition? How has philosophy progressed over the millennia? How does philosophy not only relate to just about every aspect of our lives - religion, politics, art, relationships, and more - but also help tie them all together? How can we use philosophy to think and reason more clearly about the issues which face us every day? This overview of philosophical resources offers some answers to these questions.

Integrating Passions and Reason
It's common to think of passion (or emotion) and reason as being opposed: when a person wants to act reasonably, they attempt to set aside their emotions; when a person relies upon their passions to arrive at a decision, they commonly aren't using reason and logic. Some philosophers and theologians have argued for greater cooperation between the two.

Gadamer: Pragmatist or Opportunist?
Hans-Georg Gadamer was one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century, influencing many students and readers around the world. He is also one of the most controversial because there are good arguments to consider that he engaged is blatant opportunism, working with the repressive Nazi and later Communist governments in Germany for the sake of his career and own personal safety.

Stoicism, the Body, and Happiness
The current American obsession with physical health and fitness may stem from a reasonable desire - the desire to be healthy - but it can become an unreasonable obsession. To much focus on the body can lead to levels of attachment and identification which are ultimately unhealthy psychologically as well as emotionally.

Can Ideas Encourage Ignorance?
Most people value the spread of knowledge and perhaps think that increases in ideas will, in the long run, increase what we know. Maybe that is true, but in the short run at least it may be possible for ideas to actually encourage ignorance rather than knowledge.

Nietzsche's Madness: Did Nietzsche Suffer from Syphilis?
A popular story about Friedrich Nietzsche is that he went insane because of being infected with syphilis. The evidence for this is quite scanty, though - it seems that he was "diagnosed" with syphilis simply because that was a common condition, not because his symptoms truly fit the disease. In fact, there are good reasons to think that he suffered from something else entirely.

The Moral and Aesthetic Importance of Travel
Traveling is very popular. Not everyone has the means to do so, but just about everyone would like to. Most probably regard travel as merely a form of relaxation, but it arguably has a moral dimension as well because it challenges us, tests us, and forces us to think about our lives in new categories.

Biographies of Famous Philosophers
An index of biographies of famous philosophers throughout history. Includes biographies of some sociologists, psychologists, scientists and others. Main biographical index is accompanied by sub-indexes based upon type of philosophy and geographical region.

Philosophical Schools and Systems
An index of various philosophical schools and systems which have been developed through human history. Schools of philosophy that are covered in more detail include humanism, objectivism, and existentialism. Other philosophical schools are explained in less detail.

Timelines of Philosophy
When did Nietzsche publish "The Antichrist"? When was Bertrand Russell born? When did Baruch Spinoza die? If you are interested in these and other dates in the history of philosophy, you've come to the right place. Presented here is a compendium of people, places, and events of philosophy, all organized by date.

Glossary: Religion & Philosophy
This extensive glossary provides detailed information on philosophical and religious concepts, from abandonment to Zeno of Elea! There are nearly 3000 entries total, all available in one large listing or organized by topic.

Branches of Philosophy
Philosophy is not usually treated as a single, unified subject. It is typically broken down into several specialties and it is common for contemporary philosophers to be experts in one field but know little about another. Philosophy addresses complex issues from all facets of life - being an expert on all of philosophy would entail being an...

Overview of Philosophical Resources and Information
Philosophy is not the same as "life" - on the other hand, almost any other definition would seem to narrow. So just how are we supposed to approach the subject? It must be possible, otherwise no one would even be able to begin a study of philosophy. Or can they? What is Philosophy? How is philosophy defined? What does it mean to do philosophy?...

Introduction to Philosophy
It isn't easy to say what exactly philosophy is, how to study it, or how to do it. So why has it long been one of the central subjects in Western academics? Philosophy is difficult to categorize because philosophizing makes up so much of what we do during life - there is no escaping it for anyone who wants to think clearly or think about...

Epistemology and Ignorance
Citizens of democratic nations have a right to vote, but that right to participate in decisions about public policies comes with a responsibility: the responsibility to know enough to make good decisions when we vote. Whom do we trust? Who is telling us the truth? Which policies are most correct?

The Importance of Logic and Philosophy
Few people in society today spend much time studying either philosophy of logic. This is unfortunate because so much relies on both: philosophy is a fundamental component to all areas of human inquiry while logic is the fundamental basis on which philosophy itself can be done.

The Relationship Between Logic and Humor
Logic is something hard, dense, and the occupation of dedicated scholars. Humor is light, entertaining, and accessible for everyone. Right? Maybe not - the truth is that there are many aspects of humor which depend upon an implicit understanding of logic, even if the exact rules can't be articulated

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