During the 1st millennium BCE Tyre experienced its golden age, especially during the reign of Hiram (Ahiram), King of Tyre (971-939 BCE). Hiram was the first to join the off-shore city by filling in the ocean, something he also did along to coast to expand the area of the city itself. Hiram is responsible for a number of other improvements to the city, including cisterns for collecting rain water, enclosing part of the sea to create a stable port and shipyard, as well as a large palace and important temples.
Phoenician traders began to seriously expand their range during the late 8th century BCE, giving the city the nickname "Queen of the Seas," and Tyre became such a successful trading city that it established a number of colonies around the Mediterranean, including the city of Carthage along the northern African coast. Ancient records indicate that many of the trade goods which moved around the Mediterranean passed through Tyrian wareshouses - probably in part because Phoenician traders were among the first to engage in widespread trade at all.