Neo-Orthodoxy is a modern school of Protestant theology which is largely derived from the work of Richard Niebuhr and Karl Barth - especially the latter's arguments that knowledge of god can only be obtained through revelation, not natural reason.
It has also been called other names, due to the various issues adherents can focus on. Some, for example, focus on the saving grace and activity of Jesus Christ - because this is known as kerygma, neo-orthodoxy is sometimes called kerygmatic theology.
Karl Barth worked on revising his theological position because of the uncritical acceptance of World War I which he saw in so many churches and religious leaders. For Barth, this great evil in the world refuted the traditional belief in human progress which was common among liberal theologians. Barth returned to studying the scriptures rather than nature, and as a result came to focus on sin and evil.
According to Barth, sin is not simply an error or a matter of ignorance, but is instead something unholy which is ingrained in human nature. Neither eduction nor reflection nor human social institutions can overcome sin. The only thing which can overcome sin is the saving grace of God, communicated and established through the sacrifice of Jesus as described in the Gospels. God judges, and humans must hold themselves accountable to God and God's will.
Neo-othrodoxy is an explicit rejection of the modernist notion that Christianity must be accomodated to the scientific and social developments in modern society. Instead, neo-orthodoxy argues that human nature is fixed, and fixed in sin - thus, humans and human society must accommodate themselves to the only thing which can help them, which is Christianity.
Neo-orthodoxy is not, however, the same a fundamentalism. Although both movements share somewhat similar views of human nature, they do not share the same theological or political agendas. For example, neo-orthodoxy's position on the extreme transcendence of God helped lead to the development of the "Death of God" theology, a position very different from the common fundamentalist personalization of Jesus. Also, neo-orthodoxy's critique of social institutions also helped in the development of liberation theology, a radical departure from the fundamentalist emphasis on capitalism.
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