Uthman ibn Affan
Born: c. 656
Caliph: December 14, 644 - 656
Uthman ibn Affan was the third of the original, "rightly guided" Patriarchal Caliphs of Islam. Uthman was elected to this position by a council called the shura, created by his predecessor Umar. He was one of the early converts to Islam and tradition has it that one night during a return journey from Syria he was awakened by a voice which compelled him to seek out Muhammad and make a testimony of faith.
According to Islamic tradition, Uthman was responsible for the compilation of the Quran from the memories of the original Companions of Muhammad and from whatever written records could be found. This compilation was, then, supposedly edited and a definition edition created.
Uthman was killed after 12 years due to widespread dissatisfaction with the manner of his rule. He engaged in extensive nepotism in favor of his clan, the Umayyads and some of them were involved in a plot to kill the son of Abu Bakr. Muslims today continue to believe that Uthman was entirely innocent of all of the crimes committed during his administration and that he himself was killed unjustly.
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