Two terms are contradictories (or negations) if one or the other must apply to a thing, but both cannot apply to the same thing. On the other hand, two terms are contraries if only one can apply to a thing, but neither applies to some things.
The terms alive and lifeless are contradictories because everything either has life (is alive) or lacks life (is lifeless), but nothing is both alive and lifeless.
The terms alive and dead are contraries because nothing can be both alive and dead, but some things might be neither (dead implies that it was once alive, but now is not).
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What is the Logic and the Philosophy of Language?
The two fields Logic and the Philosophy of Language are often treated separately, but they are nevertheless close enough that they are presented together here. Logic is the study of methods of reasoning and argumentation, both proper and improper. The Philosophy of Language, on the other hand, involves the study of how our language interacts with our thinking.
What is Philosophy?
What is philosophy? Is there any point in studying philosophy, or is it a useless subject? What are the different branches of philosophy - what's the difference between aestheitcs and ethics? What's the difference between metaphysics and epistemology?