Valentines Day as a Pagan Holiday:
Isnt Valentines Day a Christian day, named after a Christian saint? When we consider the matter more closely, we dont find a strong relationship between Christian saints and romance. There is a lot of debate and disagreement among scholars about the origins of Valentines Day. Well never be able to disentangle all of the cultural and religious threads in order to reconstruct a complete and coherent story, but the pagan connections to the date are much stronger than the Christian ones.
February 14th & Juno Fructifier or Juno Februata:
The Romans celebrated a holiday on February 14th to honor Juno Fructifier, Queen of the Roman gods and goddesses as well as goddess of marriage. In one ritual, women would submit their names to a common box and men would each draw one out. These two would be a couple for the duration of the festival (and at times for the entire following year). Both rituals were designed to promote not only fertility, but also life generally.
February 15th & Feast of Lupercalia:
On February 15, Romans celebrated Luperaclia, honoring Faunus, god of fertility. Men would go to a grotto dedicated to Lupercal, the wolf god, located at the foot of Palatine Hill and where Romans believed that the founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus, were suckled by a she-wolf. The men would sacrifice a goat, don its skin, and run around, hitting women with small whips, an act which was supposed to ensure fertility.
St. Valentine, Christian Priest:
According to one story, Roman emperor Claudius II imposed a ban on marriages because too many young men were dodging the draft by getting married (only single men had to enter the army). A Christian priest named Valentinus was caught performing secret marriages and sentenced to death. While awaiting execution, young lovers visited him with notes about how much better love is than war the first valentines. The execution occurred in 269 CE on February 14th.
St. Valentine, Second and Third:
Another Valentinus was a priest jailed for helping Christians. During his stay he fell in love with the jailers daughter and sent her notes signed from your Valentine. He was eventually beheaded and buried on the Via Flaminia. Reportedly Pope Julius I built a basilica over his grave. A third and final Valentinius was the bishop of Terni and he was also martyred, with his relics being taken back to Terni.
Christianity Takes Over Valentines Day:
In 469, emperor Gelasius declared February 14th a holy day in honor of Valentinus instead of the pagan god Lupercus. This allowed Christianity to take over some of the celebrations of love and fertility which had perviously occurred in the context of paganism. Pagan celebrations were reworked to fit the martyr theme Christianity did not approve of rituals that encouraged sexuality. Instead of pulling girls names from boxes, both boys and girls chose the names of martyred saints from a box.
Valentines Day Turns to Love:
It wasnt until the Renaissance of 14th century that customs returned to celebrations of love and life rather than faith and death. People began to break free of some of the bonds imposed upon them by the Church and move towards a humanistic view of nature, society, and the individual. Moving towards more sensual art and literature, there was no shortage of poets and authors connecting the dawning of Spring with love, sexuality, and procreation.
Valentines Day & Divination:
As with so many other holidays that have pagan roots, divination came to play an important role in the development of modern Valentines Day. People looked to all sorts of things, primarily in nature, in order to find some sign about who might become their mate for life their One True Love. There were also, of course, things which came to be used to induce love or lust.
Commercialization of Valentines Day:
Today, capitalist commercialism is the biggest aspect of Valentines Day. Hundreds of millions of dollars are spent on chocolate, candies, flowers, dinners, hotel rooms, jewelry, and other gifts used to celebrate February 14th. Theres a lot of money to be made from peoples desire to commemorate the day. Only Christmas and Halloween come close in the way that modern commercialism has transformed and adopted an ancient pagan celebration.
Valentines Day as a Pagan, Commercial Holiday:
Valentines Day is no longer part of the official liturgical calendar of any Christian church; it was dropped from the Catholic calendar in 1969. Its not a feast, a celebration, or a memorial of any martyrs. A return to more pagan-like celebrations of February 14th is not surprising and neither is the overall commercialization of the day. Millions of people all over the world celebrate Valentines Day in one fashion or another, but its unlikely that even one of them celebrates it in an even remotely religious manner.
This has resulted in some backlash among reiligious leaders in some societies. Some of the negative reactions are due to the pagan and commercialized elements, but some must be attributed to the long-term Christian character of the day. In India, Hindu nationalists threatened anyone caught observing any Christian holidays, including Valentines Day. Some young lovers ccaught in public together on Valentines Day were even assaulted. Government officials in Saudi Arabia prohibited Muslims from doing anything at all associated with Valentines Day.
A few Christians seem to be interested in restoring some semblance of religion to Valentines Day, though not in any traditional sense. They dont want to use it as a means for memorializing saints, but as a means of evangelization. In Kansas, for example, Christians sent roses to high school girls that were accompanied by Bible verses. Its not clear whether they were trying to reclaim a lost Christian holiday or merely trying to appropriate a secular, commercial holiday for their own purposes.
The truth, though, is that American culture has so taken over Valentines Day that no amount of Bible verses will be able to change things. Commercial interests make so much money from Valentines Day that they arent going to accept any changes that wont lead to even more profits. Christians helped make Valentines Day a cultural holiday, and now its entirely out of their hands.