What is a Curse?:
A curse is the opposite of a blessing: whereas a blessing is a pronouncement of good fortune because one is initiated into Gods plans, a curse is a pronouncement of ill fortune because one opposes Gods plans. God may curse a person or a whole nation because of their opposition to Gods will. A priest may curse someone for violating Gods laws. In general, the same people with the authority to bless also have the authority to curse.
Types of Curses:
In the Bible, three different Hebrew words are translated as curse. The most common is a ritualistic formulation which described as cursed those who violate community standards defined by God and tradition. Slightly less common is a word used to invoke evil against anyone who violates a contract or oath. Finally there are curses which are invoked simply to wish someone ill will, like cursing a neighbor in an argument.
What is the Purpose of a Curse?:
Cursing can be found in most if not all religious traditions around the world. Although the content of these curses may vary, the purpose of curses seems to be remarkably consistent: enforcement of law, assertion of doctrinal orthodoxy, assurance of community stability, harassment of enemies, moral teaching, protection of sacred places or objects, and so forth.
Cursing as a Speech Act:
A curse communicates information, for example about a persons social or religious status, but more importantly it is a speech act, which means that it performs a function. When a minister says to a couple, I now pronounce you man and wife, he isnt just communicating something, he is changing the social status of the people before him. Similarly, a curse is a deed which requires an authoritative figure performing the deed and acceptance of this authority by those hearing it.
Curse and Christianity:
Although the precise term isnt generally used in the Christian context, the concept plays a central role in Christian theology. According to Jewish tradition, Adam and Eve are cursed by God for their disobedience. All of humanity, according to Christian tradition, is thus cursed with Original Sin. Jesus, in turn, takes this curse on himself in order to redeem humanity.
Cursing as a Sign of Weakness:
A curse is not something which is issued by someone with military, political, or physical power over the person being cursed. Someone with that sort of power will almost always use it when seeking to maintain order or punish. Curses are used by those without significant social power or who simply lack power over those they wish to curse (such as a stronger military enemy).