1. Religion & Spirituality
History Calendar: September 10, 2006
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0422
Celestine I was elected pope.

1097
Splitting off from the main Crusading force, Tancred of Hauteville captures Tarsus. Tancred is a grandson of Robert Guiscard and nephew of Bohemund of Taranto.

1171
Saladin announces the formation of the Abbasid Caliphate in Egypt.

1197
Henry of Champagne, king of Jerusalem, dies in Acre when he accidentally falls from a balcony. This was the second husband of Isabella's to die. The situation is urgent because the Crusader city of Jaffa is being threatened by Muslim forces under the command of Al-Adil, Saladin's brother. Amalric I of Cyprus is chosen as Henry's successor. After marrying Isabella, the daughter of Amalric I of Jerusalem, he becomes Amalric II, king of Jerusalem and Cyprus. Jaffa would be lost, but Amalric II is able to capture Beirut and Sidon.

1224
The first Franciscans arrived in England. At the time the habit worn by Franciscans was gray (today it is brown) and they came to be called "the Gray Friars" by the English.

1349
Jews who survived a massacre in Constance Germany were burned to death.

1481
The Italian port city of Otranto is recaptured from the Turks.

1487
Pope Julius III was born.

1839
Charles S. Peirce, founder of the American school of philosophy known as Pragmatism, was born.

1862
Rabbi Jacob Frankel became the first Jewish chaplain in the United States Army.

1909
Sigmund Freud received an honorary doctor of laws degree from Clark University, the only honorary degree he would ever receive.

1910
Pope Pius X institutes an Oath Against Modernism (Sacrorum Antistitum) and required it of all clergy. It would not be rescinded until 1967 by Pope Paul VI.

1932
B. F. Skinner presented his first paper to an APA convention, "The Rate of Establishment of a Discrimination."

1942
Stephen Jay Gould, American paleontologist, was born.

1944
Joseph Ratzinger, the future Pope Benedict XVI, is released from duty at an anti-aircraft unit defending a BMW plant.

2003
James Yee, one of the few Muslim chaplains in the Ameican military, is arrested upon leaving Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and subsequently charged with spying. The prosecution expresses the intention to seek the death penalty. Eventually, all charges would be dropped and appear to have been fabricated in an effort to "get" Yee because he was a Muslim and, therefore, an enemy of America.



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