Lucius I is elected pope.
Simon de Montfortt, 5th Earl of Leicester and leader of the Crusade against the Cathars in southern France, is killed while leading the siege against Catharsin order to recapture it from Raymond, when a large stone struck him in the head. This radically altered the nature of the Crusade because there were no other high nobles interested in it - the responsibility fell to the king of France who was, at most, interested in maintaining the new land he possessed in the region than in fighting heresy.
Innocent IV is elected pope.
The first Methodist conference is held in London.
American philosopher W.V. Quine is born.
Eugenio Pacelli, later Pope Pius XII, made his first trip to Berlin as the Vatican's official ambassador.
Iraqi leader General Abd-al-Karim Qassim officially called for "the return of Kuwait to the Iraqi homeland."
Decided: Engel v. Vitale
The Supreme Court ruled 7 to 1 that it is unconstitutional for a government agency like a school or government agents like public school employees to require students to recite prayers.
Decided: Committee for Public Education v. Nyquist
The Supreme Court found all three sections of a New York law providing, among other things, tax deductions and reimbursements for children in parochial schools, unconstitutional. Each of the three parts of the law had the primary effect of furthering religion.
The pope signed a declaration drawn up by the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (Inquisition) which defended church unity, the historical conditioning of dogma, the priesthood, and papal infallibility. On this last point, it was widely recognized that the declaration was in response to the arguments made by German Catholic theologian against papal infallibility, although without actually naming him. Even other theologians who disagreed with Küng found the declaration problematic because it failed to address many of Küng's historical and and exegetical arguments.
French philosopher Michel Foucault dies.
Despite protests, Pope John Paul II met with Austrian President Kurt Waldheim at the Vatican. Waldheim had endured a virtual diplomatic isolation since his election 1986 because of allegations that, as a lieutenant in the German Army, he had helped deport Greek Jews to death camps.
In Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a one-parent notification requirement for abortions performed on minors with a judicial bypass option. The Court also decided, in Hodgson v. Minnesota, that a two-parent notification law with a judicial bypass was constitutional as well.
The Vatican released a statement condemning efforts in various American states and municipalities that would outlaw discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. According to the Vatican, such discrimination in jobs like teachers and coaches and among tenants in apartments and houses should be legal. Moreover, efforts by private companies to extend health and other benefits to same-sex partners of employees should be stopped.
Decided: Capitol Square Review Board v. Pinette
The Supreme Court ruled that an unattended cross erected by the KKK on public grounds would not give the impression of government endorsement and, hence, is not a violation of the separation of church and state.
Decided: Boerne v. Flores
The Supreme Court ruled against an Archbishop and in favor of the city of Borne, finding that the Congress did indeed exceed its authority by passing the RFRA and that governments did not have to use the "compelling government interest" test.
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