Paul I was elected pope.
Anti-Pope Victor IV (Gregorio) overthrew himself for Pope Innocent II.
At Montwimer in Champagne, Robert le Bougre burns about a hundred and eighty heretics whose trials had all had begun and ended within one week.
Ottoman Turks under the command of Mehmed II break into Constantinople and capture the city. With this, the last remnant of the Roman Empire is destroyed. Constantine XI Palaeologus, the last Byzantine emperor, dies. By this point there isn't much to the empire - just the city of Constantinople and some land around it in the Greek province of Thrace. Both the culture and the language had long since become Greek rather than Roman. The Ottomans, however, consider themselves to be the legitimate successors of the Byzantine emperors and commonly use the title Sultan-i Rum, Sultan of Rome.
Benedict XIII was elected pope.
Oswald Spengler, German philosopher and historian, was born in Blankenburg, Germany.
Mt. Everest is scaled for the first time. Edmond P. Hillary of New Zealand and Tensing Norkay of Nepal are the first humans to stand on the peak.
Decided: Braunfeld v. Brown
An Orthodox Jew challenged Pennsylvania's blue laws, but by a 6-3 vote with Chief Justice Warren writing the majority opinion, the Supreme Court declared them constitutional.
Decided: McGowan v. Maryland
The Supreme Court ruled that Maryland's Sunday closing laws had evolved into furthering secular ends and therefore did not violate the Establishment Clause.
Religion in Public Schools: The U.S. Department of Education updated and re-issued the 1995 guidelines on religion in schools. Sections that dealt with student garb and religious excusals were revised to reflect the Supreme Court's finding that the Religious Freedom Restoration Act was unconstitutional. Because that act was no longer in force, schools were now freer to decide whether students could wear religious garb such as yarmulkes and head scarves to class. Schools now could also allow or not allow students to be excused from classes that conflict with their religious beliefs. Secretary Riley made three recommendations to local school boards and teachers: 1. to recognize that in an increasingly diverse religious society that every school board should adopt a policy on religious expression; 2. to inform teachers early on about the role of religion in public schools through workshops and schools of education; 3. to actively inform parents about student's rights to religious expression as well as freedom of conscience.
Decided: Elkhart vs. Brooks
The Supreme Court let stand a 7th Circuit Court ruling which found that a Fraternal Order of Eagles Ten Commandments monument at an Indian city hall was unconstitutional.
In Khobar, Saudi Arabia, Islamic militants attack a housing complex for foreign workers and take several dozen hostages after killing nearly a dozen. The "Jerusalem Squadron" takes responsibility for the attack and claims that it seeks to drive "Zionist and crusaders" out of Saudi Arabia for trying to steal Muslims' "oil and resources."
In Massachusetts, U.S. District Judge Nancy Gertner rules that calling someone a homosexual does not qualify as slander or libel anymore.
Ascension of Baha'u'llah.
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