1. Religion & Spirituality
History Calendar: April 13, 2006
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0073
According to Jewish historian Josephus, 967 Jewish zealots committed mass suicide at the fortress of Masada the night before the Roman Tenth Legion broke through the walls. The only survivors were two women and five children who had hid in a cistern; they were later released unharmed by the Romans.

1059
Pope Nicholas II decreed that future popes could only be elected by cardinals.

1111
Henry V was crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

1147
In the bull Divina dispensatione Pope Eugene III approves of the Crusading into Spain and the beyond the northeastern frontier of Germany. Bernard Clairvaux writes "We expressly forbid that for any reason whatsoever they should make a truce with these people [the Wends] ... until such time as ... either their religion or their nation be destroyed."

1519
Catherine de Medici, Queen of France, was born. A Roman Catholic, Catherine would play an important role in the French Wars of Religion.

1570
Guy Fawkes, a key figure in the "Gunpowder Plot" conspiracy, was born.

1598
Henri IV of France issued the Edict of Nantes, giving many religious and civil freedoms to the Huguenots, the French Protestants.

1662
Isobel Gowdie of Scotland voluntarily confessed to practicing witchcraft.

1906
The Azusa Street Revival, the mission which formed the nexus of the American Pentecostal movement, officially began when the church services led by black evangelist William J. Seymour moved into a building on Azusa Street in Los Angeles, California.

1919
American atheist Madalyn Evalyn Mays (later Madalyn Murray O'Hair) was born.

1941
Pope Pius XII (Eugenio Pacelli) gave an Easter message asking those participating in war to spare the lives of civilians and to refrain from allowing the war to escalate.

1950
The Arab League adopted a resolution that denounced separate peace treaties with Israel and any annexation of Palestinian territory into any Arab state.

1959
Pope John XXIII announced that no Roman Catholic was permitted to vote for any person, party, or measure that supported communism in any way.

1986
Pope John Paul II visited Rome's central synagogue. This was the first recorded visit of a pope to a Jewish house of worship - in this case, the spiritual home of what is believed to be the oldest Jewish community of the Diaspora.

2003
Domingo Shilon Shilon, a Tzotzil Indian, was stoned to death and his body was later hacked with machetes and partially burned by a crowd that accused him of witchcraft.

2006
Maundy Thursday is celebrated in Western Christendom.

2006
The beginning of Pesach (Passover) is celebrated in Judaism.

2006
Holy Thursday is celebrated in Eastern Christendom.



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