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History Calendar: February 23, 2006
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• History: February
• Religious Timelines

 

0155
Polycarp of Smyrna was burned at the stake at the age of 86 because he refused to repudiate Christianity.

0155
Polycarp, regarded as a personal link between the apostolic age and the growing Christian church of the second century, is martyred at Smyrna.

0553
Pope Vigilius ratified the decisions of Second Council of Constantinople.

1417
Pope Paul II was born.

1447
Pope Eugene IV died.

1455
Johannes Gutenberg released the first book to be printed with movable type in the West: a Bible. This would make the creation of Bibles cheaper and, eventually, help to increase the availability of Bibles to both the clergy and the laity - a key factor in the ensuing Protestant Reformation.

1883
Existentialist philosopher Karl Jaspers was born in Oldenburg, Germany.

1898
French author Emile Zola was imprisoned for writing his "J'accuse," a letter denouncing the French government for antisemitism in its jailing of Alfred Dreyfus.

1923
Argued: Meyer v. Nebraska
The Supreme Court ruled that parents may decide for themselves if and when their children may learn a foreign language, based upon a fundamental liberty interest individuals have in the family unit.

1947
Five American companies are awarded a major contract to build a 1,000 mile long oil pipeline in Saudi Arabia, linking the Saudi oil fields with the Mediterranean.

1963
Argued: Abington Township School District v. Schempp
The Supreme Court ruled 8-1 against of allowing the reciting of the Bible verses and the Lord's Prayer.

1970
For the first time, women were permitted to serve as Eucharistic Ministers in Roman Catholic Church services.

1982
Decided: United States v. Lee
If someone believes that paying a tax, like a Social Security tax, violates their religious beliefs, should they be granted an exemption?

1996
Repeatedly shunned and rejected by international Iraqi opposition groups, defectors Hussein and Saddam Kamil were enticed to return to Iraq - where they are quickly executed.

1997
The birth of Dolly the sheep, which actually occurred the previous year, was announced to the world. Dolly was the first mammal cloned from an adult.

1997
Palestinian terrorist Ali Abu Kamak opens fire on tourists on the observation deck of the Empire State Building, killing one and wounding another six before committing suicide.

2003
American sociologist Thomas K. Merton died in Manhattan, New York City.

2004
United States Secretary of Education Rod Paige labeled the National Education Association, the nation's largest teachers' union, a "terrorist organization." He later apologized, calling his comments "an inappropriate choice of words to describe the obstructionist scare tactics the NEA's Washington lobbyists have employed against No Child Left Behind's historic education reforms."



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